Harvard Style Format Bibliography Internet

Harvard is a style of referencing, primarily used by university students, to cite information sources.

Two types of citations are included:

  1. In-text citations are used when directly quoting or paraphrasing a source. They are located in the body of the work and contain a fragment of the full citation.

    Depending on the source type, some Harvard Reference in-text citations may look something like this:

    "After that I lived like a young rajah in all the capitals of Europe…" (Fitzgerald, 2004).

  2. Reference Lists are located at the end of the work and display full citations for sources used in the assignment.

    Here is an example of a full citation for a book found in a Harvard Reference list:

    Fitzgerald, F. (2004). The great Gatsby. New York: Scribner.


Harvard Reference List Overview

Reference lists are created to allow readers to locate original sources themselves. Each citation in a reference list includes various pieces of information including the:

  1. Name of the author(s)
  2. Year published
  3. Title
  4. City published
  5. Publisher
  6. Pages used

Generally, Harvard Reference List citations follow this format:

  • Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.

If there are multiple sources by the same author, then citations are listed in order by the date of publication.

If you’d like more information about Harvard Reference Lists, visit Anglia Ruskin University’s guide

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with One Author

The structure for a Harvard Reference List citation for books with one author includes the following:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (Only include the edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s).

If the edition isn’t listed, it is safe to assume that it is the first addition, and does not need to be included in the citation.

Example: One author AND first edition:

  • Patterson, J. (2005). Maximum ride. New York: Little, Brown.

Example: One author AND NOT the first edition

  • Dahl, R. (2004). Charlie and the chocolate factory. 6th ed. New York: Knopf.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard References for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with Two or More Authors

When creating a citation that has more than one author, place the names in the order in which they appear on the source. Use the word “and” to separate the names.

  • Last name, First initial. and Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

Example:

  • Desikan, S. and Ramesh, G. (2006). Software testing. Bangalore, India: Dorling Kindersley, p.156.
  • Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. (2014). Discovering computers. Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.446-448.
  • Daniels, K., Patterson, G. and Dunston, Y. (2014). The ultimate student teaching guide. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, pp.145-151.

* remember, when citing a book, only include the edition if it is NOT the first edition!

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, La Trobe University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Chapters in Edited Books

When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In: First initial. Last name, ed., Book Title, 1st ed.* City: Publisher, Page(s).
  • Bressler, L. (2010). My girl, Kylie. In: L. Matheson, ed., The Dogs That We Love, 1st ed. Boston: Jacobson Ltd., pp. 78-92.

* When citing a chapter in an edited book, the edition is displayed, even when it is the first edition.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Multiple Works By The Same Author

When there are multiple works by the same author, place the citations in order by year. When sources are published in the same year, place them in alphabetical order by the title.

Example:

  • Brown, D. (1998). Digital fortress. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Brown, D. (2003). Deception point. New York: Atria Books.
  • Brown, D. (2003). The Da Vinci code. New York: Doubleday.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Journal Articles

The standard structure of a print journal citation includes the following components:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s).

Examples:

  • Ross, N. (2015). On Truth Content and False Consciousness in Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory. Philosophy Today, 59(2), pp. 269-290.
  • Dismuke, C. and Egede, L. (2015). The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in Community Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(5), pp. 183-195.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard references citations for journals quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website

When citing journal articles found on a database or through a website, include all of the components found in a citation of a print journal, but also include the medium ([online]), the website URL, and the date that the article was accessed.

Structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal, [online] Volume(Issue), pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Raina, S. (2015). Establishing Correlation Between Genetics and Nonresponse. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, [online] Volume 61(2), p. 148. Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuest-Research-Library.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard references citations for journals quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Newspaper Articles

When citing a newspaper, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, Page(s).

Example:

  • Weisman, J. (2015). Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York Times, p.A1.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for newspapers quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Newspaper Articles Found on a Database or a Website

To cite a newspaper found either on a database or a website, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, [online] pages. Available at: url [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Harris, E. (2015). For Special-Needs Students, Custom Furniture Out of Schoolhouse Scraps. New York Times, [online] p.A20. Available at: http://go.galegroup.com [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for newspapers quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Magazines

When citing magazines, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Magazine, (Volume), Page(s).

Example:

  • Davidson, J. (2008). Speak her language. Men’s Health, (23), pp.104-106.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for magazines quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Websites

When citing a website, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

When no author is listed, use the following structure:

  • Website name, (Year published). Page title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Messer, L. (2015). 'Fancy Nancy' Optioned by Disney Junior. [online] ABC News. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/fancy-nancy-optioned-disney-junior-2017/story?id=29942496#.VRWbWJwmbs0.twitter [Accessed 31 Mar. 2015].
  • Mms.com, (2015). M&M'S Official Website. [online] Available at: http://www.mms.com/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for websites quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for eBooks and PDFs

When citing eBooks and PDFs, include the edition, even if it’s the first edition, and follow it with the type of resource in brackets (either [ebook] or [pdf]). Include the url at the end of the citation with the date it was accessed in brackets.

Use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. [format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Zusack, M. (2015). The Book Thief. 1st ed. [ebook] New York: Knopf. Available at: http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].
  • Robin, J. (2014). A handbook for professional learning: research, resources, and strategies for implementation. 1st ed. [pdf] New York: NYC Department of Education. Available at http://schools.nyc.gov/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for ebooks and pdfs quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Archive Material

Archival materials are information sources that are used to provide evidence of past events. Archival materials are generally collected and housed by organizations, such as universities, libraries, repositories, or historical societies. Examples can include manuscripts, letters, diaries, or any other artifact that the organization decides to collect and house.

The structure for archival materials includes:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the material. [format] Name of the university, library, organization, Collection name, code, or number. City.

Examples:

  • Pearson, J. (1962). Letter to James Martin. [letter] The Jackson Historical Society, Civil Rights Collection. Jackson.
  • Marshall, S. and Peete, L. (1882). Events Along the Canal. [program] Afton Library, Yardley History. Yardley.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for archive material quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Staffordshire University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Artwork

To cite artwork, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year created). Title. [Medium]. City that the artwork is/was displayed in: Gallery or Museum.

Example:

  • Gilbert, S. (1795-1796). George Washington. [Oil on canvas] New York: The Frick Collection.
  • Jensen, L., Walters, P. and Walsh, Q. (1994). Faces in the Night. [Paint Mural] Trenton: The Trenton Free Library.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for artwork quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, RMIT University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Blogs

Blogs are regularly updated webpages that are generally run by an individual.

When citing a blog post, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Post title. [Blog] Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Cohen, M. (2013). Re-election Is Likely for McConnell, but Not Guaranteed. [Blog] FiveThirtyEight. Available at: http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/re-election-is-likely-for-mcconnell-but-not-guaranteed/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for blogs quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Broadcasts

To cite a radio or tv broadcast, use the following structure:

  • Series title, (Year published). [Type of Programme] Channel number: Broadcaster.

Examples:

  • Modern Family, (2010). [TV programme] 6: Abc.
  • The Preston and Steve Morning Show (2012). [Radio Programme] 93.3: WMMR.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for broadcasts quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of New South Wales has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Conference Proceedings

Conference proceedings are academic papers or presentations that are created or used for the purpose of a meeting or conference.

Use the following structure to cite a conference proceeding:

If published online:

  • Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. [online] City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

If not published online:

  • Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages.

Examples:

  • Palmer, L., Gover, E. and Doublet, K. (2013). Advocating for Your Tech Program. In: National Conference for Technology Teachers. [online] New York: NCTT, pp. 33-34. Available at: http://www.nctt.com/2013conference/advocatingforyourtechprogram/ [Accessed 11 Jan. 2014].
  • Fox, R. (2014). Technological Advances in Banking. In: American Finance Association Northeast Regional Conference. Hartford: AFA, p. 24.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for conference proceedings quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Court Cases

To cite a court case, use the following format:

  • Case name [Year published]Report abbreviation Volume number (Name or abbreviation of court); First page of court case.

Example:

  • Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. [2015]12-1226 (Supreme Court of the United States); 1.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for court cases quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dictionary Entry

When citing a dictionary entry in print, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page.

When citing a dictionary entry found online, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

**If no author/editor/or contributor is given, omit it from the citation.
**If the publishing year is unavailable, use the abbreviation n.d., which stands for no date

Examples:

  • Sporadic (1993). In: Webstin Dictionary, 8th ed. New York: Webstin LLC, page 223.
  • Reference. (n.d.) In: Merriam-Webster [online] Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reference [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for dictionary entries quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Tasmania has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dissertations

A dissertation is a lengthy paper or project, generally created as a requirement to obtain a doctoral degree.

Use the following structure to create a citation for a dissertation:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Dissertation title. Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution.

Example:

  • Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing. PhD. Yeshiva University.

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If you need clarification, Southampton Solent University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for DVD, Video, and Film

When citing a DVD, Video, or Film, use the following format:

  • Film title. (Year published). [Format] Place of origin: Film maker.

**The place of origin refers to the place where the dvd, film, or video was made. Eg: Hollywood
**The film maker can be the director, studio, or main producer.

Example:

  • Girls Just Want To Have Fun. (1985). [film] Chicago: Alan Metter.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for DVDs, video, and films quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Emails

Email citations use the following format:

  • Sender’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Subject Line of Email. [email].

Example:

  • Niles, A. (2013). Update on my health. [email].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for emails quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Southern Queensland has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Encyclopedia Articles

An encyclopedia is a book, or set of books, used to find information on a variety of subjects. Most encyclopedias are organized in alphabetical order.

Use this format to cite an encyclopedia:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. In: Encyclopedia title, Edition. City published: Publisher, page(s).

Example:

  • Harding, E. (2010). Anteaters. In: The International Encyclopedia of Animals, 3rd ed. New York: Reference World, p. 39.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for encyclopedia articles quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Tasmania has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Government Publications

Government publications consist of documents that are issued by local, state, or federal governments, offices, or subdivisions.

Use the following format to cite the government publications:

  • Government Agency OR Last name, First Initial., (Year published). Title of Document or Article. City published: Publisher, Page(s).

Examples:

  • Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, (2012). BicyclePA Routes. Harrisburg: PENNDOT, p.1.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for government publications quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Interviews

When citing an interview, use the following format:

  • Last name of Interviewer, First initial. and Last name of Interviewee, First initial. (Year of Interview). Title or Description of Interview.

Example

  • Booker, C. and Lopez, J. (2014). Getting to know J. Lo.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for interviews quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Liverpool has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Music or Recordings

To cite a music piece or recording, use the following format:

  • Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Medium] City published: Music Label.

When citing a music piece or recording found online, use the following structure:

  • Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Online] City published: Music Label. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Examples:

  • Jackson, M. (1982). Thriller. [CD] West Hollywood: Epic.
  • Kaskade, (2015). Never Sleep Alone. [Online] Burbank: Warner Bros/Arkade. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/kaskade/kaskade-never-sleep-alone [Accessed 7 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for music or recordings quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Online Images or Videos

To cite an image or video found electronically, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [format] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Examples:

  • Williams, A. (2013). DJ Gear. [image] Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
  • 7UP (2015). 7UP Team Up Tiesto. [video]. Available at: https://youtu.be/TMZqgEgy_Xg [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for online images or videos quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Patents

When citing patents, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title or Description of Patent. Patent number.

**It should be noted that even if the information is found online, no online information needs to be included.

Example:

  • Masuyama, T., Suzuki, M. and Fujimoto, H. (1993). Structure for securing batteries used in an electric vehicle. 5,392,873.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for patents quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Podcasts

When citing a podcast, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title. [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Provenzano, N. (2012). #NerdyCast Episode 5. [podcast]. #NerdyCast. Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/nerdycast/id514797904?mt=2 [Accessed 14 Dec. 2014].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for podcasts quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, De Montfort University Leicester has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Presentations and Lectures

To cite a presentation or lecture, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year) Presentation Title.

Example:

  • Valenza, J. (2014). Librarians and Social Capital.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for presentations and lectures quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Birmingham City University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Press Releases

When citing a press release in print, use the following format:

  • Corporate Author, (Year published). Title.

If found online, use the following format:

  • Corporate Author, (Year published). Title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Examples:

  • Imagine Easy Solutions, (2015). ResearchReady Jr. Now Available For Elementary Age Students.
  • EBSCO, (2014). EBSCO adds EasyBib Citation Integration. [online] Available at: http://campustechnology.com [Accessed 11 Jan. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for press releases quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Religious Texts

To cite any type of religious text, such as the Bible, Torah, Quran, use the following format:

  • Title (Year published). City published: Publisher, pages used.

Example:

  • New American Standard Bible, (1998). Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc, pp.332-340.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for religious texts quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Manchester Metropolitan University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Reports

When citing a report, use the following format:

  • Last name, First Initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title. [online] City published: Publisher, Pages used. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Certify, (2015). First Quarter, 2015 Business Expense Trends. [online] Portland: Certify, p.2. Available at: http://www.certify.com/CertifySpendSmartReport.aspx [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for reports quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Software

When citing software, use the following format:

  • Title or Name of Software. (Year Published). Place or city where the software was written: Company or publisher.

Example:

  • Espanol. (2010). Arlington: Rosetta Stone.

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for software quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.


Harvard In-Text Citations Overview

Students use in-text citations to indicate the specific parts of their paper that were paraphrased or quoted directly from a source.

Each in-text citation generally displays the last name of the author and the year the source was published.

The in-text citation is usually located at the end of the quoted or paraphrased sentence.

In-Text Citations for One Author

The author’s last name and the year that the source was published are placed in the parentheses.

Example:

  • Gatsby’s infatuation with Daisy is often revealed in the story, often in simple phrases such as, “... he turned toward her with a rush of emotion” (Fitzgerald, 2004).

If the author’s name is already used in the body of the text, then students should exclude it from the in-text citation.

Example:

  • Fitzgerald’s use of “old sport” throughout the novel suggests that Gatsby considered Nick Carraway a close friend (2004).

In-Text Citations for Two or Three Authors

When a source has two authors, place both authors’ names in the order in which they appear on the source, with the word and separating them.

Examples:

  • “A range of values can express emotion, too. Stark, high-contrast drawings may carry a strong emotional charge” (Lazzari and Schleiser, 2011).
  • “Rather than constantly seeking approval from others, try to seek approval from the person who matters the most - yourself” (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, 2011).

In-Text Citations for Four or More Authors

Only use the first listed author’s name in the in-text citation, followed by “et al.” and the publishing year.

Example:

  • It can be said that “knowledge of the stages of growth and development helps predict the patient’s response to the present illness or the threat of future illness” (Potter et al., 2013).

Example:

  • Potter et al. (2013) go on to explain that “among the most Catholic Filipinos, parents keep the newborn inside the home until after the baptism to ensure the baby’s health and protection.”

In-Text Citations for Corporate Authors

Use the name of the organization in place of the author.

Example:

  • “Dr. Scharschmidt completed her residency in 2012, joined the Leaders Society in 2013, and became a new volunteer this year to encourage other young dermatologists in her area to join her in leadership giving” (Dermatology Foundation, 2014).

If the name of the organization is used in the text, place only the year in parentheses.

Example:

  • The Dermatology Foundation (2013) stated in their report that “industry also played an important role in the success of the highly rated annual DF Clinical Symposia—Advances in Dermatology.”

In-Text Citations for No Author

When an author’s name cannot be found, place the title of the text in the parentheses, followed by the publishing year.

Example:

  • Lisa wasn’t scared, she was simply shocked and caught off guard to notice her father in such a peculiar place (Lost Spaces, 2014).

In-Text Citations With No Date

When a date is not included in a source, simply omit that information from the in-text citation.

Example:

  • “Her hair was the color of lilac blossoms, while a peculiar color, it fit her quite well” (Montalvo)

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard References quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.


Need more example reference of Harvard style. Click here.

This extensive FAQ list is provided to help you find answers to many more unusual questions relating to citing references. Contact your nearest Library if you cannot find your answer in the present list.

Act of Parliament

Authors, multiple

Author, none

Bibliography

Blog

Capitalisation

Chapter in an edited book or reader

Citation - definition

Citing authors whose original work you have not read

Collaborative works

Conference proceedings and papers

Corporate author

Dates, multiple

Date, none

Diagram

Discussion board message

Discussion lists

DVD / Video

Editions

Electronic book

Electronic journal articles

Et al.

Foreign language material

Graph

Image / Table

Internet Sources

Lecture

Missing information

Multiple sources by the same author

Newspaper article

Patent

Personal communication

Photograph

Place of publication, none

Podcast

Publisher, none

Quotations

Quotations, long

Quotations, short

Reference - definition

References list

Report

Secondary referencing, or citing authors whose original work you have not read

Table

Television programme

Thesis or dissertation

Title page - definition

Translations

Web pages

Wiki

Working paper

YouTube film

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Act of Parliament

In your citation provide the name of the act and the year:

(Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001)

In the reference in your bibliography, write the name of the act and the year in italics. You also need to include the chapter number:

Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001. c. 10.

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Authors, multiple

If the work has two authors, give both:

Lancaster, G. and Massingham, L. 1993. Marketing management. London: McGraw-Hill.

Include both authors' names when citing the work in your text:

(Lancaster and Massingham 1993)

If you are citing a work with more than two authors just give the first author's name and use et al. (and others) to indicate that there are more authors:

(McCulloch et al. 2000)

In your references list, either provide the surnames and initials of all authors or use et al. after the first author's name:

McCulloch, N. et al. 2000. Poverty, inequality and growth in Zambia during the 1990s. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.

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Author, none

If there is no author of the book or web you would like to reference, it is acceptable to reference the source by its title:

Oxford English Dictionary. 1989. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

In your bibliography, slot the reference into your alphabetical list according to the title:

Nash, E. L. 2000. Direct marketing: strategy, planning, execution. 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill.
Oxford English Dictionary, 1989. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Shimp, T.A. 1993. Promotion management & marketing communications. 3rd ed. Forth Worth: Dryden Press.

A work with no author would be cited in your text by using the title and the publication year: (Oxford English Dictionary 1989)

If you are referencing a newspaper article or journal article which has no author, then use the title of the publication instead:

South Wales Echo. 2012. Students 'more career driven'. 8 February 2012, p.13.

In your citation use the title of the publication, in italics, then the year.

e.g. (South Wales Echo 2012)

Be aware, however, if no named person or persons is given as the author(s) the work may have a corporate author.

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Bibliography

See References list.

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Blog

Include the name of the blog author, the title of the message, the name of the web site and the date the message was posted.

Bradley, P. 2010. Top 100 tools for learning 2010. Phil Bradley's web log [Online] 12 June 2010. Available at: http://www.philbradley.typepad.com/ [Accessed: 18 June 2010].

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Capitalisation

Capitalise the first letter of each author's last name and each initial.

Also capitalise the first letter of the publication title written in italics, the first letters of all main words in the title of a journal and all first letters of a place name and publisher.

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Chapter in an edited book or reader

A single chapter within, say, an edited book of essays by different individuals, would be referenced as follows:

Knudsden, H. 2003. European works councils: a difficult question for trade unions. In: Foster, D. and Scott, P. eds. Trade unions in Europe: meeting the challenge. Brussels: Peter Lang, pp. 145-166.

In your text, you would cite this using the author of the chapter you are referring to: (Knudsden 2003)

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Citation — definition

Briefly, citing means referring within your text to sources which you have used in the course of your research. In the Harvard style, this means providing the author's surname and the date of publication e.g.

It has been argued (Harris 2001) that the main considerations are...

It has been argued by Harris (2001) that the main considerations are...

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Citing authors whose original work you have not read

See Secondary referencing

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Collaborative works

Sources such as encyclopaedias and dictionaries, which have many contributors, can be referenced by the title:

Oxford English Dictionary. 1989. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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Conference proceedings and papers

The first element of a reference to a conference proceeding should be the person or organisation responsible for editing the proceedings. The place and date of the conference should also be included:

Redknap, M. et al. eds. 2001. Fourth International Conference on Insular Art. National Museum & Gallery, Cardiff, 3-6 September 1998. Oxford: Oxbow.

If no editor is traceable, substitute this with the name of the conference:

Building on the evidence: proceedings of the second conference on evidence-based Practice. 1999. 16-17 April 1999. Norwich: Norfolk Healthcare Trust.

This should be cited within your text as (Building on the evidence, 1999)

If you are citing an individual paper within the conference proceedings, the author of the paper should be the first element of the reference. The page numbers of the paper, within the proceedings as a whole, should be included:

Fledelius, H.C. 2000. Myopia and significant visual impairment: global aspects. In: Lin, L.L.-K. et al. eds. Myopia Updates II: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Myopia. Taipei, 17-20 November, 1998. Tokyo: Springer, pp. 31-37.

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Corporate author

An organisation may be the 'author' of a work, instead of a named individual:

Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. 2004. Planning and pollution control. London: TSO.

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Dates, multiple

If a book has been through several editions there may be several copyright dates on the back of the title page. Take the latest date as your publication date — this is the publication date of the book you are holding.

Be sure to take the latest publication date, not the latest reprint date, which may be more recent. A reprint is not a new edition.

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Date, none

If there is no date of publication, put [no date] in the reference:

Horsfall, N. [No date]. A companion to the study of Virgil. Leiden, Boston: Brill.

This should be cited In your text as follows:

(Horsfall [no date])

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Diagram

See Image / Table

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Discussion board message

When referencing a message on a discussion board in the virtual learning environment, include the following details:

Author. Year. Title of message. Title of discussion board. In: Name of academic module [Online] Day Month Year of post. Available at: URL of virtual learning environment [Accessed: Day Month Year].

For example:

Smith, A. 2010. Quality of Wikipedia articles. Wikipedia debate discussion board. In: Study Skills [Online] 12 June 2010. Available at: http://cue.cf.ac.uk [Accessed: 18 June 2010].

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Discussion lists

Little, L. 2002. Two new policy briefs. ECPOLICY discussion list [Online] 16 April 2002. Available at: http://www.askeric.org/ Virtual Listserv_Archives/ECPOLICY/2002/Apr_2002/Msg00003.html [Accessed: 8th November 2003].

For all email references, the title of the message comes from the email subject line.

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DVD / Video

As a minimum provide the title, director, distributor and date:

Super size me. 2005. Directed by Morgan Spurlock [DVD]. London: Tartan Video.

For a video write [Videocassette] instead of [DVD]

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Editions

Provide the publication date for the edition which you have consulted - a newer edition will usually have been substantially revised, so you need to make clear which edition of the text you are referring to.

It is important to indicate the number of the edition, if it is not the first, as in the following example:

Nash, E. L. 2000. Direct marketing: strategy, planning, execution. 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill.

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Electronic book

eBooks accessed via LibrarySearch or the eLibrary may be referenced in the same way as their print equivalents.

If you have downloaded an eBook from a web site e.g. eBooks.com or Amazon onto your computer, eReader or mobile device, then reference it as follows:

Author. Year of edition you used. Title [eBook version]. Place: Publisher. Available at: URL [Accessed: day month year].

Howson, C. 2007. Successful business intelligence: secrets to making BI a killer app [PDF for Digital Editions version]. New York: McGraw Hill. Available at: http://www.ebooks.com/330687/successful-business-intelligence/howson-cindi/ [Accessed: 6 October 2011].

Roubini, N. and Mihm, S. 2011. Crisis economics: a crash course in the future of finance [Kindle version]. London: Penguin. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Crisis-Economics-Course-Finance-ebook/dp/B004Y4WMHW/ref=sr_1_7?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1317896488&sr=1-7 [Accessed: 6 October 2011].

If the eReader version of the book does not include page numbers, use the chapter and then paragraph numbers in your citation:

(Smith 2007, chapter 2, para. 4)

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Electronic journal articles

Use this if the journal is only available online or differs from its printed equivalent:

Paulussen, S. 2004. Online news production in Flanders: how Flemish online journalists perceive and explore the internet's potential. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication [Online] 9(4). Available at: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol9/issue4/paulussen.html [Accessed: 12 September 2006].

Include the url, date when you accessed the article and the volume and issue numbers, if available.

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Et al.

See Authors, multiple

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Foreign language material

If you are writing a piece of research in the English language but are referring to sources which are written in other languages:

Either give the source title exactly as it appears in the original language, or give an English translation of it in square brackets with a language descriptor at the end, e.g.

Thurfjell, W. 1975. Vart har våran doktor tagit vägen? Läkartidningen 72, p. 789.

or

Thurfjell, W. 1975. [Where has our doctor gone?]. Läkartidningen 72, p. 789. (In Swedish).

If there had just been an English summary to the full Swedish document you would have acknowledged this as: "(in Swedish with English summary)".

In choosing which method to adopt, it is wise to consider whether or not your reader is likely to be familiar with the original language. Whichever method you choose, be consistent throughout the piece of work and its bibliography.

Sources which you have read in the English translation are treated differently, e.g.

Alberti, L. 1974. Music through the ages. Translated from the Italian, by R. Pierce. London: Cassell. (Originally published in 1968).

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Graph

See Image / Table

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Image / Table

Provide the title of the image, figure or table followed by the citation:

Figure 14. Dwelling prices, London compared with UK, 1993-1999 (ONS, GOL and LC 2000)

Or, if there is no title, state the source underneath it:

Source: Indiana University School of Education (2004)

Then, in your bibliography, provide a full reference appropriate to the type of source the item is from. For example, if referencing an image found in a book, follow the guidelines for referencing a book.

When re-using images, diagrams, graphs or tables created by others, they are usually protected by copyright. Under the University's copyright licence, it is usually permissible to use images, tables etc. in non-commercial research or private study, including coursework. They must not be used in published works or made publicly available in an electronic or online format without seeking permission from the author. However, in some cases the author may state their permission for their work to be re-used or apply a Creative Commons licence to the image. For more information see http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/stillimages/advice/copyright-and-still-images-frequently-asked-questions

To find copyright free images, try using a royalty free image site or the Creative Commons search engine http://search.creativecommons.org/. Always check the author's terms of use to see if permission is granted. If the author does not state any terms of use then assume that the item is protected by copyright.

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Internet Sources

See:

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Lecture

Jackson, C. 2010. Citing and referencing in the Harvard style. [Lecture to BSc Astrology Year 1]. Cardiff University, 14 June 2010.

For lecture notes or presentations provided on the virtual learning environment, you should write your reference as follows:

Name of tutor. Year. Title of lecture. Name of module [Online]. University. Available at: URL of virtual learning environment [Accessed: Day month year].

For example:

Jackson, C. 2010. Citing and referencing in the Harvard style. Study skills [Online]. Cardiff University. Available at: http://cue.cf.ac.uk [Accessed: 18 June 2010].

Please note that in some circumstances it may not be appropriate for you to cite and reference lectures. Check with your lecturer or tutor before referring to them in your assessed work.

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Missing information

   See: Author, none, Date, none, Publisher, none.

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Multiple sources by the same author

In your list of references, arrange any references with the same author by the year of publication, beginning with the oldest.

If referencing sources written by the same author and published in the same year, use letters after the publication year to distinguish between them.

Boyne, G. (2002a)

Boyne, G. (2002b)

Also use this format to order your list of references.

Boyne, G. et al. 2002a. Best value - total quality management for local government? Public Money and Management 22(3), pp. 9-16.

Boyne, G. et al. 2002b. Plans, performance information and accountability: the case of best value. Public Administration 80(4), pp. 691-710.

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Newspaper article

The format required is similar to that of an academic journal article, except that there will be a precise day of publication, and volume numbers are not usually available or necessary:

Benoit, B. 2007. G8 faces impasse on global warming. Financial Times 29 May 2007, p. 9.

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Patent

Anderson, B. 2001. Device for the damping of vibrators between objects. GB62625858 [Patent].

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Personal communication

Smith, K. 2004. Email to B. Robertson 14 April 2004.

Young, Z. 2007. Letter to S. Nicholas 28 September 2007.

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Photograph

See Image / Table

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Place of publication, none

Use the Latin term sine loco (s.l.)

But try hard to find this, as it is nearly always there.

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Podcast

Author/presenter. Year. Title of podcast. Title of web site or podcast series [Podcast]. Day month year of podcast release. Available at: URL [Accessed: Day month year].

For example:

Cardiff University. 2010. Getting your references in order. Students' survival guide to writing a good essay [Podcast]. 15 April 2010. Available at: http://www.xpressradio.co.uk/survivalguide [Accessed: 18 June 2010].

If no author/presenter is available, put the title of the podcast at the beginning of the reference, followed by the year. Use the title of the podcast instead of the author in your citation.

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Publisher, none

Use the latin term sine nominee (s.n.)

If no publisher name is given, then it is likely that the place of publication will also be unavailable, so give these elements of the reference as follows:

Peters, H. 1946. A short architectural history of the church towers in Lincoln. (s.l.): (s.n.).

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Quotations

Use quotation marks for a short passage where you are quoting someone else’s words exactly, and give page numbers in your citation.

Longer quotations can be indented from the main body of your text. In this case quotation marks are not required.

If you are deliberately missing out any words from the quotation, use three dots … to indicate the omission.

If you are adding or substituting any of your own words within the quotation, enclose these in square brackets [ ].

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Quotations: long

If you are quoting a piece of text which is more than a few lines in length, this should be distinguished from the main body of your own writing by indenting the quotation from the left hand margin. A quotation distinguished in this way does not need to be enclosed in quotation marks:

Charles Dickens’ novel Bleak House opens with the following description to set the scene for his story:

London, Michaelmas term lately over, and the Lord Chancellor sitting in Lincoln's Inn Hall. Implacable November weather. As much mud in the streets as if the water had but newly retired from the face of the earth, and it would not be wonderful to meet a Megalosaurus, forty feet long or so, waddling like an elephantine lizard up Holborn Hill (Dickens 1853, p. 1).

The tone of this passage gives a detatched, non-committal account of the dreary winter scene...

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Quotations: short

A short quotation, of a sentence or less in length, can be incorporated your own writing with the use of quotation marks:

Key causes of economic deprivation include low income or unemployment which are often the result of “poor qualification levels and lack of basic skills” (Thake and Saubach 1993, p.18).

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Reference — definition

A reference is a full description of each source you have consulted, in a bibliography or list of references at the end of your work. References should be given in a consistent style throughout.

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References list

A References list should contain only the details of the sources you have cited in the body of your text. A bibliography may also include details of other sources you consulted when researching a piece of work but may not have cited in your text.

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Report

If there is no identifiable author use the name of the organisation which produced the report:

(European Commission 2004)

European Commission. 2004. First report on the implementation of the internal market strategy 2003-2006. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

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Secondary referencing, or citing authors whose original work you have not read

Where possible you should aim to reference from the original source. However, sometimes you may need to cite an author whose work you have not personally read, but whose work is presented or summarised by the author of a publication you have consulted.

Rodinelli (1983), cited in Potts (2002, p. 37), describes the stages of a project...

or

A process project might consist of a number of stages including experimentation and production (Rondinelli 1983, cited in Potts 2002, p. 37).

In your references you should list the source you have actually read, i.e. Potts.

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Table

See Image / Table

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Television programme

Include the title, television channel and time and date of airing.

Top gear. 2007. BBC2, 14 October. 20.00hrs.

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Thesis or Dissertation

Be sure to indicate the level (e.g. MA, MSc, or PhD) of the thesis and the institution at which it was presented:

Boyce, P. J. 2003. GammaFinder: a Java application to find galaxies in astronomical spectral line datacubes. MSc Dissertation, Cardiff University.

Bin Omar, A. 1978. Peasants, institutions and development in Malaysia: the political economy of development in the Muda region. PhD Thesis, Cornell University.

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Title page — definition

The title page is the page at the front of a book which has the book’s copyright information on the reverse.

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Translations

  See Foreign language material

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Web pages

For an Internet-based work by an individual the reference should be given as follows:

Lane, C. et al. 2003. The future of professionalised work: UK and Germany compared [Online]. London: Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society. Available at: http://www.agf.org.uk/pubs/pdfs/1232web.pdf [Accessed: 3rd December 2004].

The publisher and place of publication can be thought of as the organisation responsible for hosting the site, although can be left out if unavailable.

As well as the complete URL to the page, always give the date at which you accessed it. Web sites appear and disappear so often that it is vital to indicate that the information was accurate at the date given.

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Wiki

There is usually no discernable author of a wiki entry and so this information can be excluded from the reference if unavailable. Instead, begin your reference with the title of the wiki article, then provide the year the page was last updated followed by the title of the web site:

A map of our own: Kwun Tong culture and histories. 2009. Creative commons wiki [Online]. Available at: http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Case_Studies/A_Map_of_Our_Own:Kwun_Tong_Culture_and_Histories [Accessed: 18 June 2010].

Please note that as it is often difficult to tell who has authored a wiki post, it is essential that you verify the accuracy of the information provided using scholarly sources such as books or journal articles. Check with your lecturer or tutor before referencing sources such as Wikipedia.

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Working paper

Include the working paper series and number in the reference:

Collins, A. and Flynn, A. 2004. Measuring sustainability: the role of ecological footprinting in Wales, UK. Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society working paper series no. 22. Cardiff: BRASS/ESRC.

If the working paper is online, include the following information:

Collins, A. and Flynn, A. 2004. Measuring sustainability: the role of ecological footprinting in Wales, UK [Online]. Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society working paper series no. 22. Cardiff: BRASS/ESRC. Available at: http://www.brass.cf.ac.uk/uploads/wpecofootprintinginwalesACAF1204.pdf [Accessed: 6 October 2011].

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YouTube film

Libncsu. 2009. Wikipedia: beneath the surface [Online]. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QY8otRh1QPc [Accessed: 21 June 2010].

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