Black Swans By Lauren Slater Essays On Education

Lauren Slater (born March 21, 1963) is an American psychologist and writer. She is the author of seven books, including Welcome To My Country (1996), Prozac Diary (1998), and Lying: A Metaphorical Memoir (2000). Her 2004 Opening Skinner's Box: Great Psychology Experiments of the Twentieth Century, a description of psychology experiments "narrated as stories," [1] has drawn both praise and criticism. It was nominated for a Los Angeles TimesKirsch award for science and technology writing,[2] and was named as a 2005 Bild Der Wissenschaft book of the year in Germany.[3] Criticism has focused on Slater's research methods and on the extent to which some of the experiences she describes may have been fictionalized.

Other awards Slater has won include the 1993 New Letters Literary Award in creative nonfiction, and the 1994 Missouri Review Award, and her work was included in The Best American Essays of 1994 and 1997.[4] She has contributed to The New York Times, Harper's, and Elle.[4]

The Village Voice has called her "the closest thing we have to a doyenne of psychiatric disorder." [5]

Education and career

Slater is a freelance writer specializing in psychology, mental illness, and women's health. She graduated in 1985 from Brandeis University with a bachelor's degree in British and American literature.[6] She earned a master's degree in psychology from Harvard University and a doctorate in psychology from Boston University. Slater was a 2002-03 Knight Science Journalism Fellow at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. During the fellowship, part of the Program on Science, Technology and Society in the School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, her area of study was neuropsychology, psychiatric care, medical technologies, and medical ethics.[7]

Slater was a clinical psychologist for 11 years before embarking on a full-time writing career. She was the director of AfterCare Services, a mental health and substance-abuse clinic in Boston.[8]

She is married to computer programmer Benjamin Alexander. They have two children: Clara and Lucas.

After the birth of her daughter, Slater wrote her memoir Love Works Like This,[9] to chronicle the agonizing decisions she made related to her psychiatric illness and her pregnancy. In a 2003 BBC Woman's Hour radio interview,[10] and a 2005 article in Child Magazine[11] Slater provides information on depression during pregnancy and the risks to the woman and her baby.

Opening Skinner's Box

Nominated for a Los Angeles TimesKirsch award for science and technology writing,[2] and named as a 2005 Bild Der Wissenschaft book of the year in Germany,[3]Opening Skinner's Box has been described as "one of the first major books to bridge the gap between academic and popular psychology." [12] In a 2004 literary review,[13]Farhad Manjoo, a writer for, observed that it was 'a genuinely compelling read'.

It describes — in the form of stories, complete with characters, plot, and emotional insights — the 10 psychology experiments Slater regards as the most significant or interesting of the 20th century. These include B.F. Skinner's work on behaviorism; Stanley Milgram's demonstration of how ordinary people can be influenced to obey authority; David Rosenhan's 1972 experiment in which eight people feigned mental illness then gained admittance to psychiatric hospitals; Harry Harlow's experiments with monkeys and motherhood; and Bruce K. Alexander's Rat Park, where laboratory rats addicted to morphine turned the drug down when given a better life.[1]


The criticism has focused on Slater's research methods and writing style. The use of creative non-fiction and Slater's highly personalized narrative style are unusual in a book about science, and the work has garnered some hostile reactions, mostly from the psychiatric or clinical psychology community, some of whom have disputed quotations she has used, or have criticized her understanding of the studies she wrote about.[14]

Slater's attorney has responded to the criticism by accusing some psychiatrists and psychologists of having mounted a "vindictive effort" and "vendetta" against her, and of "sniping" at her on[15]

David Corfield, a philosopher of mathematics writing in The Guardian, questions the veracity of the book's reported speech. He relates how, during Slater's discussion with Harvard University psychologist Jerome Kagan, she recalled how Kagan had suddenly dived under his desk to illustrate a point about free will. However, Kagan told Corfield that he had not done this but only suggested that he could do so if he wanted.[16]

In response to Corfield's criticism, Slater showed the New York Times an e-mail she received from Kagan, who was responding to a pre-publication fact-checking list she had sent him. Slater had written: "3. that, in demonstrating to me that people do, indeed, have free will, you jumped under your desk ...," and Kagan responded: "I was trying to demonstrate that when humans have a choice of actions, they can select an act that has never been rewarded in the past ..." [17]

Slater repeated several variants of the urban legend that B.F. Skinner raised his daughter Deborah in an operant conditioning chamber and subjected her to psychological experiments, resulting in psychosis that led her to sue her father and ultimately commit suicide. Although Slater's book stated that the rumors were false, Slater also allowed the reader to believe that Deborah had disappeared. A reviewer in The Observer in March 2004 then misquoted Slater's books as supporting the rumors. This review was read by Deborah Skinner (now Deborah Buzan), who publicly responded that she was not insane, dead, or difficult to contact.[18]

Farhad Manjoo protested on that Buzan's Guardian article 'reads as if she has never even picked up Slater's book',[13] observing that 'Slater's description of the box is pretty much in line with Buzan's description in the Guardian' [13][19]

Another criticism concerned Slater's description of her reaction to the David Rosenhan study. Slater wrote that she had repeated Rosenhan's research, in which he trained students to pretend to be mentally ill to gauge the reactions of psychiatric hospitals, by presenting herself at the emergency rooms of multiple hospitals with a single auditory hallucination to see whether she would be admitted as a psychiatric patient. She said that she was not admitted but was given prescriptions for antipsychotics and antidepressants.

This has been questioned by a number of psychiatrists and psychologists, including Robert Spitzer of the New York State Psychiatric Institute.[15] Slater replied through her attorney that she considered her work to be an "anecdote, not systematic research, and certainly not a 'replication' of Rosenhan's study".[15] Slater's attorney accused Spitzer of being involved in a campaign to discredit Slater's work.[15]



  • (2013) Playing House: Notes of a Reluctant Mother, Beacon Press, ISBN 978-0-8070-0173-8
  • (2012) The $60,000 Dog: My Life with Animals, Beacon Press, ISBN 978-0-8070-0187-5
  • (2005) Blue Beyond Blue: Extraordinary Tales for Ordinary Dilemmas, W.W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-05959-6
  • (2004) Opening Skinner's Box: Great Psychology Experiments of the Twentieth Century, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-05095-5
  • (2003) Love Works Like This: Travels Through a Pregnant Year, Bloomsbury Publishing plc, ISBN 0-7475-6217-2
  • (2000) Lying: A Metaphorical Memoir, Random House (US), ISBN 0-375-50112-6 [20]
  • (1998) Prozac Diary, Random House, ISBN 0-679-45721-6
  • (1997) Welcome to My Country, Anchor, ISBN 0-385-48739-8

Anthology contributions

  • (2002) "Dr. Daedalus" in The Best American Science Writing 2002 (anthology), HarperCollins Publishers, ISBN 0-06-093650-9 [21]
  • (1997) "Black Swans" in The Best American Essays 1997 (anthology), Houghton Mifflin Company, ISBN 0-395-85695-7
  • (1994) "Striptease" [22] in The Best American Essays 1994 (anthology), Houghton Mifflin Company, ISBN 0-395-69254-7

Recent articles

  • "Beyond the Valley of the Dolls," Elle, July 2007
  • "True Love," National Geographic, February 2006 (excerpt)
  • "Who Holds The Clicker?", Mother Jones Magazine, Nov/Dec 2005
  • "Cognitive Dissonance: The Work Of Leon Festinger," Die Welt, August 2005
  • "The Life Of Katrina Dalton," The New York Times Magazine, January 2005
  • "The Cruelest Cure: David Barlow and Anxiety Disorders", The New York Times Magazine, November 2004
  • "Rosenhan’s Pseudopatient Experiment," The London Times, April 2004
  • "Milgram’s Obedience Studies," The Guardian Magazine, April 2004
  • "Living In An Age Of Anxiety," Self Magazine, April 2004
  • "Parents help babies learn lessons of love",Deseret News (Salt Lake City), March 2003 (This article first appeared in Parenting magazine. (C) The Parenting Group.)
  • "The Value Of Repression," The New York Times Magazine, March 2003

See also


  1. 1 2 Slater, Lauren. Opening Skinner's Box: Great Psychological Experiments of the Twentieth Century, Norton 2004, ISBN 0-393-05095-5
  2. 1 2 "Los Angeles Times Announces Kirsch Award Winner, Book Prize Finalists", Los Angeles Times Media Center, March 10, 2005
  3. 1 2 "Wissenschaftsbuch des Jahres", HyperSchool, undated, retrieved April 14, 2006
  4. 1 2 Bloomsbury author information; retrieved April 6, 2006
  5. ↑ '"Life is like Skinner's box of chocolates: Slater revisits 20th-century psych's greatest hits",Village Voice (Shrink Rap), by Joy Press, 23 February 2004, accessed 27 April 2006
  6. ↑ Brandeis 50th Review
  7. ↑ Knight Science Fellows
  8. ↑ Slater,Lauren Do You Cure A Sex Addict?”The New York Times November 19, 2000
  9. ↑ Mental health net book review accessed 20 April 2006
  10. ↑ BBC Woman's Hour radio interview BBC Mental Health, Drugs & Pregnancy, Woman's Hour, 14 January 2003
  11. ↑ Slater, Lauren “The Pregnancy Blues“Child Magazine April 2005
  12. ↑ Lee, Felicia R. "Book's Critique of Psychology Ignites a Torrent of Criticism", The New York Times, April 12, 2004
  13. 1 2 3 How free is free will? (on Powell Books) by Farhad Manjoo, 28 May 2004
  14. ↑ Kihlstrom, John F. New England Journal of Medicine, September 2, 2004
  15. 1 2 3 4 Letters from critics about Opening Skinner's Box, and responses from Slater's attorney.
  16. ↑ Corfield, David. "Box Pop", The Guardian, March 27, 2004
  17. ↑ Miller, Laura. "Unpacking Skinner's Box", The New York Times, May 2, 2004.
  18. ↑ Skinner Buzan, Deborah. "I was not a lab rat", The Guardian, March 12, 2004
  19. ↑ Note: Manjoo continued, 'Slater writes that it was actually an "upgraded playpen" whose "thermostatically controlled environment" prevented diaper rash and other kiddie ailments, reduced the chance of suffocation by blanket, and allowed the daughter to walk around without any impediments, building a baby of impressive self-confidence.'
  20. ↑ Note: This book was alternately titled in the UK as Spasm: A Memoir with Lies, Methuen Publishing Ltd, ISBN 0-413-74250-4
  21. ↑ Note: This essay was also published in The Best American Magazine Writing 2002 (anthology), HarperCollins Publishers, ISBN 0-06-051572-4
  22. ↑ List of articles on Slater's website

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/11/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.

Do you need help with with essay, research paper, homework or even dissertation?

Visit our website - (

=================>>>CLICK HERE<<<=================
=================>>>CLICK HERE<<<=================
=================>>>CLICK HERE<<<=================

=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP<<<=================
=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP<<<=================
=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP<<<=================

death of family member essay
no salvation outside the poor prophetic-utopian essays
docteur essayagh eric
interview teacher essay
how do you end an essay
man and nature relationship essay titles
essay on weather in pakistan rahim
essay test keywords
causation and remoteness essay typer
professional quality custom essays delivered diet
sospecha mortal critical thinking
essay on the consequences of natural disasters
stop climate change essay paper
what is a dissertation ph d
wildlife conservation efforts in india bibliography meaning
lesson 14 homework 5.2 answers to riddles
my teachers gave me too much homework
gcse english how to write an essay
quotes about achieving your goals and dreams essay
texas 1500 1700 essay
ms 11 solved assignment july dec 2012 movie
ndltd-theses and dissertations catalog of federal domestic assistance
methodology dissertation helper
martin hackl dissertation titles
web analytics case study ppt sample
writing a process essay powerpoint
case study medical law and ethics
problem of evil philosophy essay
dd206 essays about education
advantages disadvantages working mother essay
role model essay on parents
what is american history essays
js prom essay
carbetamide analysis essay
descriptive essay of a room
ads using logos ethos and pathos essay
organizing ideas for homework
the chaser by john collier thesis statement
significant memory essay questions
how to write a biography essay about myself sample
oregon state essay topics
qstk homework 2-17
georgetown 2016 application essays for pharmacy
homework oh homework rhyme scheme
technology negative effects on society essay topics
how to write essays for graduate school applications
thomas jefferson declaration of Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research independence essay Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research argumentative
definition essays ideas
reference sources in essay
essay on dog menace
pros and cons of Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research euthanasia essay free
research essays journal
appendix f impact matrix assignment
3 types of essays on ap lang exam rubric
sample cover letter for headhunter job
moto cg 150 start essay
what can i do to improve my Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research essay writing
limbo like me poem analysis essays
examples of thesis statements for mental disorders
write assignment
tic tac toe homework grids for drawing
sample report format assignment upsi
international law dissertation examples for education
as3 caurina transitions examples essays
write my essay for me ireland vacations
tenir a definition essay
maths homework year 3 multiplication worksheets
title of an essay format
factual essays
title for catcher in the rye essay
roland barthes the eiffel tower essay
rhetorical narrative essay
antoine meillet bibliography examples
circulating nurse cover letter
copy assignment operator default judgment
thomas hardy the darkling thrush essay outline
black swans by lauren slater essays on love
diwali in hindi essay
fulbright essay tips writing
an essay on criticism summary sparknotes beowulf
y115 homework hotline number
mearsheimer walt essay definition
marling homeworks waukesha wi news
studies on homework 2015
ulrike kugler dissertation
college application essay prompts texas rangers
chemistry assignment topics for class 11
quebec essay
biophysical techniques for macromolecules analysis essay
abraham lincoln's second inaugural address essay
vrukshavalli amha soyare essay contest
dar essay 2013 topical bible
the lottory essay
alankit assignments jaipur discom
eco 3411 case study
legalizing gay marriage essay conclusion
importance sports education essays free
umi thesis and dissertations
essay writing my favourite game the cardigans
example discursive essays
merits and demerits of mobile phone for students essay on judaism
examples of arguement essays
east egg vs west egg essay definition
open source copyright assignment example
Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research extra homework for year 5000
how to start writing essays
cover letter journal submission pdf merge
sianiithewolf homework for kids
business process management case study ppt
vaia rimorchio 3 assignments
high school reflection essay examples
jamaica hospital medical center family medicine residency personal statement
usa tv channel assignments
harvard medical school secondary application essays
cbs news assignment america animal odd couple on pbs
3rd person objective narrative essay
identifying thesis statements exercise
usf admissions essay 2012 nissan
celebration of pohela boishakh essays
essay titles for compare and contrast graphic organizer
safety belt essay
magazine back issue definition in critical thinking
journalizing of household transactions for a month case study
comparison and contrast essay words
nothing but the truth literary essay 5th
cuncta essay
retail management cover letter uk
sporobolus diander descriptive essay
essay writer cheap uk airlines
new century wellness group case study 22
related essays anton chekhov
free Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research dissertation writing cartoons
auburn university essay prompt
pressure to get good grades essay
diagnostic essay prompts-high school of dragons
ap biology essay 1991 transpiration of plants
what type of music is good for doing homework online
fix my english essay
eu law supremacy essay writer
pierre de fermat bibliography for websites
ap world history dbq essay prompts for elementary
mcm101 assignment solution
telecharger 20 dissertations database
research papers about europe
ap us history essay outlines for kids
soal essay biologi kelas x
simplicity is beauty essay
finally done with homework tumblr
essay on my aim in life for class 10
help with english homework for free


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *